Top 8 Back-End Coding Languages for Web Development

By Indeed Editorial Team

March 29, 2022

Web development is generally classified into two categories: front-end development and back-end development. Front-end languages like HTML, CSS and JavaScript serve the client side and what is seen on a screen, and back-end development supports the server side, or the functionality of the website or app. In this article, we explain in detail what back-end languages are and list eight of the top back-end languages for web and software developers.

What are back-end languages?

Back-end languages are what programmers use to create the internal systems that work in the background of a web application. The back end of a program or application refers to the part of the software that users, sometimes called clients, don't see. Back-end programming has features that simplify the process of connecting the server, which gives and receives information and data, with the client, who uses the program on an internet-enabled device.


If you work as a back-end developer or full-stack developer, you may use these architectural programming languages and their corresponding frameworks for projects like these:

  • Websites

  • Interactive online tools

  • Mobile apps

  • Desktop apps

  • Online games

  • Web servers

  • Software prototypes

  • Data collection

  • Networking

  • Database connections

  • Security features

Read more: Front End vs. Back End: Definitions and Differences

Top 8 back-end coding languages

Consider these eight back-end languages as you prepare to start your career as a software developer or web developer

1. C#

C# is a high-level language that can operate on various types of computers easily. Programmers use this powerful language with frameworks like .NET to design the internal structure of webpages and connect client interactions with server interactions for a fully functioning program. The versatility and stability of C# and its related frameworks make it a reliable choice for web and software development.


C# is similar to C and C++, both useful back-end programming languages, so you may learn C# more easily if you're familiar with the basics of these languages. However, even beginners can learn C# with little difficulty because of its error-proof commands that alert you about issues before you test your program. This may help you learn back-end development and complete projects on your own before trying a more complicated language.

2. Golang

Golang, sometimes shortened to Go, is a static language, which means it catches errors before running the program, which makes it easy to find specific bugs in your code before testing your program. With its simple and practical syntax, you can efficiently write code for the back end of a piece of technology and scale it up or down when needed.


Developers created Golang to make web development easier and more secure, so you can use this reliable language for your back-end development comfortably. If you choose to learn Golang, you can also use associated frameworks like Beego and Echo to create stable and effective server-side functions for your program or application.


Related: 11 of the Most In-Demand Coding Languages

3. Java

Java is a popular language for developers who want to create large, dependable web applications that require high-security measures to keep data safe. It's a versatile language that you can use with many digital platforms, including mobile devices and computers, to create web, mobile and desktop applications and tools. This versatility and dependability are because Java runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which standardizes the machine on which programmers run code rather than allowing it to run on each programmer's individual machine.


Many programmers use Java for web and software development because it has so many potential implementations, but this also means there are multiple online resources to help new programmers learn how to use Java for successful back-end projects. If you like the consistency of the JVM and the flexibility of platforms for which you can use Java, consider learning this language to start your career.

4. JavaScript

For many back-end and full-stack developers, it's vital to understand JavaScript, a scripting language that works for back and front-end development. Programmers commonly use JavaScript for web development, and key features like an easy set-up for using this language and a supportive community of JavaScript experts have made this language one on which most websites depend. Some ways this language is useful for back-end development include its simple scripting syntax and client-side validation features, which allow JavaScript programs to connect with browsers to validate information.


Employers may expect candidates for back-end and full-stack developer roles to know JavaScript in addition to other languages. Learning JavaScript may be useful if you want to apply your knowledge to all aspects of web development and understand front-end and back-end features equally.


Related: 50 Types of Programming Languages and What They Do


5. PHP

PHP is the acronym for hypertext preprocessor and is a scripting language, which means the code you write in this language goes through an interpreter to be read directly by the computer rather than a compiler, where it would translate into machine-readable code. PHP is best used for server-side functionality and makes deploying, or submitting and confirming, your code much easier with deployment tools and capabilities. Since you can embed PHP code into HTML, which is a popular front-end tool for designing web applications and pages, PHP is useful in various areas of development.


Another benefit of PHP is that it's a great way for beginners to see results with their back-end coding because it often bypasses minor errors that don't affect the final outcome of a program in a major way. While you may have to go back through your program later to sort out the bugs in your code, this can help you feel more accomplished and learn how to finish the back end of a project.

6. Python

Python is an object-oriented language that focuses on manipulating objects that contain data, is a straightforward language with a simple syntax that makes it easy to read and debug. With Python, programmers can use the open-source framework Django to create scalable, or easily upgraded or side-graded, software for the web more quickly with web development-specific tools and functions.


Like Ruby, Python is a common language choice for beginner coders because it's easy to understand and accessible, with many published resources for learners to get help online. Besides Django, you can also choose from a variety of back-end frameworks when coding with Python, and this allows you to have more flexibility in your software design while still benefiting from the ease of Python's syntax and built-in tools.

7. Ruby

Ruby is a programming language you can use with Ruby on Rails (RoR), a framework created specifically for Ruby that allows you to create and perform tasks using less code. Frameworks are often great tools for software architects who build the foundation of an application or program using the framework's code libraries, built-in tools and special functions that simplify the coding process. For example, you may use RoR and Ruby to create a specific task for your software using one line of code instead of multiple lines.


Since Ruby and RoR are so simple, it's often a good choice for beginners to learn and practice back-end development. Creating tasks and functions easily in RoR also speeds up the process of creating a piece of software, which makes Ruby useful for quickly making prototypes of projects and testing their basic functionality.

8. SQL

SQL stands for structured query language, which is a programming language that uses queries, or data requests, to receive information from databases. You can use SQL to get valuable server-side information from databases and use that information to perform tasks that allow the client-side of an application or program to run properly. This programming language is especially useful for updating internal databases in a company or retrieving data for clients.


Back-end developers often use SQL to perform more organizational tasks that help a piece of software run rather than create the foundation for its features. Many databases use this language to interact with data, so it may be a good choice for you to learn if you want to understand how data retrieval and changes can affect the back-end functionality of a piece of software.

Please note that none of the companies mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.

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