Raises are given on a yearly basis at year-end reviews. There may be some kind of 'cost of living raise,' though I am unsure/I've been proving myself worthwhile for a raise every year. Should you be offered an off-cycle promotion, you are also offered improved salary, but then are (generally) not considered for a raise at year-end reviews (circumstances dependent).
I interviewed for a position that initially was offered to someone else. As the company is growing, my name and info was kept on file, and I was called back two months later for a second round for a similar position. I had weird circumstances where I was abroad when the opportunity was offered to me, but the company worked with me on a start date and ensuring I had all I needed before I started.
Steps require an HR screen, at least one round of interviews with the appropriate team members, work sample (department dependent), and verbal commitment before a written offer is extended.
As a hiring manager, it has sometimes taken upwards of two months to find appropriate talent to hire, which is frustrating, especially when you know somebody is leaving.
Pay more attention to the way people are put into management positions. Tenure shouldn't be the only motivating factor. What you see from them in executive meetings or the decks they create to impress you shouldn't be enough to convince you that they are successful in their role. I believe that upper management should be interfacing with every single person in their larger team or department for at least 30 minutes a month so they can mitigate issues that arise before they become unmanageable.
Phone screening and two in person meetings.